Not everyone likes to do it but I love researching, analyzing and weaving things together into a narrative that is both engaging and evidence-based. When I was taking time off from the 3 social enterprises I co-founded to focus on writing my book, Compassionate Counterterrorism: The Power of Inclusion In Fighting Fundamentalism, I often found myself in that meditative flow state I had only read about. Words would come pouring out, and the sun would set before I realized I hadn't eaten lunch yet!
I wrote Compassionate Counterterrorism with the intention of accelerating global peacefulness. Even if you haven't read my book, I hope that by sharing all of the sources I used, I can accelerate your own research to advance our collective mission in this endeavor. You can get an idea of what my book's about by downloading a sample chapter here, or you can buy it. The sources are listed below by chapter so you'll get an idea of the theme/topic of most chapters. If the links don't work, trying manually searching the articles or reports referenced as urls sometimes change.
So, here it is. These are some of the best books and research sources on terrorism, countering violent extremism (CVE) and peacebuilding through the lens of social innovation. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the book, you'll find that the sources encompass politics, peace and security, business, social entrepreneurship, neuroscience, ethics, law, Islam, sustainable development and spirituality.
David Cortright and George A. Lopez, Uniting Against Terror: Cooperative Nonmilitary Responses to the Global Terrorist Threat (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007), 37.
Seth G. Jones and Artin C. Libicki, How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida (RAND Corporation, 2008), www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG741-1.pdf.
Arie Perliger and Daniel Milton. “From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria.” Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, November 11, 2016, https://ctc.usma.edu/from-cradle-to-grave-the-lifecycle-of-foreign-fighters-in-iraq-and-syria/.
Hamed El-Said and Richard Barrett. Enhancing the Understanding of the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon in Syria (United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism [UNOCT], July 2017), www.un.org/en/counterterrorism/assets/img/Report_Final_20170727.pdf.
Global Terrorism Index 2017. Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017, visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
Keith Proctor, “Youth and Consequences: Unemployment, Injustice and Violence—Afghanistan, Colombia, Somalia.” Mercy Corps, February 13, 2015, www.mercycorps.org/research-resources/youth-consequences-unemployment-injustice-and-violence?source=WOW00088&utm_source=release&utm_medium=media%20relations&utm_campaign=youth%20conflict%20report.
Chapter 1: Who Is The Terrorist?
1. Naif Al-Mutawa, “Superheroes Inspired by Islam,” (TEDGlobal Conference, July 2010), Accessed online, www.ted.com/talks/naif_al_mutawa_superheroes_inspired_by_islam?language=en.
2. Trevor Noah, “Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s Royal Wedding” (Live at the O2 London May 21, 2018), YouTube, www.no-ads-youtube.com/video/trevor-noah/prince-harry-meghan-markle-s-royal-wedding-live-at-the-o2-london-trevor-noah?v=njfl_bwFBoI.
3. Miriam Valverde, “A Look at the Data on Domestic Terrorism and Who Is Behind It,” PolitiFact, August 16, 2017, www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2017/aug/16/look-data-domestic-terrorism-and-whos-behind-it/
4. Europol, “European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2016,” EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report, November 1, 2016, www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/european-union-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-te-sat-2016.
5. Feliks Garcia, “White Nationalist Movement Growing Much Faster Than Isis on Social Media,” Independent, September 4, 2016, www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/white-nationalist-movement-twitter-faster-growth-isis-islamic-state-study-a7223671.html.
6. Alan Strathern, “Why Are Buddhist Monks Attacking Muslims?” BBC News, May 2, 2013, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22356306.
7. Alan B. Krueger and Jitka Maleckova, “Does Poverty Cause Terrorism? The Economics and the Education of Suicide Bombers,” The New Republic Online, June 24, 2002, https://newrepublic.com/article/91841/does-poverty-cause-terrorism.
8. James Michael Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz, Terrorism: Origins and Evolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005) 26–27.
10. Walter Laqueur, “Terrorism: A Brief History.” EJournal USA Foreign Policy Agenda 12 (2007): 21.
9. “Joseph Stalin: Created Worst Man-made Famine in History,” History: Fast Facts, April 19, 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=_aF_sRXVdoU.
10. Rupert Colley, “Yakov Stalin—A Summary.” History in an Hour, March 18, 2013, www.historyinanhour.com/2013/03/18/yakov-stalin-summary/.
11. Laqueur, “Terrorism: A Brief History,” 22.
12. Brian Michael Jenkins, “The 1970s and the Birth of Contemporary Terrorism.” The Hill, July 30, 2015, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/homeland-security/249688-the-1970s-and-the-birth-of-contemporary-terrorism.
13. Timothy Naftali, Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism, Interview with Timothy Naftali, C-SPAN, July 21, 2005, www.c-span.org/video/?188136-1/blind-spot-secret-history-american-counterterrorism.
14. Christoph Reuter, My Life is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing, (Munich: Bertelsmann Verlag, 2002).
15. “Tamil Tigers: Suicide Bombing Innovators,” NPR: Talk of the Nation, May 21, 2009, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=104391493.
16. Lutz, Terrorism: Origins and Evolution, 39.
17. Abdel Bari Atwan, The Secret History of Al Qaeda (New York: University of California Press, 2006), 92.
18. Arnaud Blin and Gerard Chaliand, eds. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Trans. Edward Schneider. (New York: University of California Press, 2007). 221–23.
19. Alix Langone, “Police Swamped with 1,200 Calls About Suspicious Packages: The Latest on the Austin Bombings,” Time, March 20, 2018, http://time.com/5205181/austin-bombings%20/.
20. James Alan Fox, “How Do We Prevent Future Stephen Paddocks? After Vegas, Way Forward Fraught with Problems.” USA Today, October 3, 2017, www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2017/10/03/how-do-we-prevent-future-stephen-paddocks-way-forward-fraught-problems-jameslan-fox-column/724856001/.
21. Richard F. Grimmett, “Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad 1798–2008,” Congressional Research Service, March 10, 2011, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R41677.pdf.
22. IPPNW-Germany, “Body Count: Casualty Figures after 10 Years of the ‘War on Terror,’” PSR: Physicians for Social Responsibility, March 19, 2015, www.psr.org/blog/resource/body-count/.
23. Micah Zenko and Jennifer Wilson, “How Many Bombs Did the United States Drop in 2016?” Council on Foreign Relations, January 5, 2017, www.cfr.org/blog/how-many-bombs-did-united-states-drop-2016/.
24. Jack Serle, “Obama Drone Casualty Numbers a Fraction of Those Recorded by the Bureau.” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, July 1, 2016 https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2016-07-01/obama-drone-casualty-numbers-a-fraction-of-those-recorded-by-the-bureau.
25. Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 43.
26. Robert Windrem, “US Government Considered Nelson Mandela a Terrorist Until 2008,” NBCNews.com, November 2, 2015, www.nbcnews.com/news/world/us-government-considered-nelson-mandela-terrorist-until-2008-flna2D11708787.
27. League of Arab States, “The Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism,” Adopted by the Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior and the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice (Cairo, Egypt, April 1998), www.unodc.org/images/tldb-f/conv_arab_terrorism.en.pdf.
28. “Information on More than 180,000 Terrorist Attacks.” Global Terrorism Database, University of Maryland National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism: A Center of Excellence of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, July 2018, www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.
29. Global Terrorism Index 2017. Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017, visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
30. Global Terrorism Index 2016, Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2016, http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf.
31. Lorenzo Vidino, Francesco Marone, and Eva Entenmann, “Fear Thy Neighbor, Radicalization and Jihadist Attacks in the West,” ICCT: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, Publications, June 14, 2017, https://icct.nl/publication/fear-thy-neighbor-radicalization-and-jihadist-attacks-in-the-west/.
32. The Soufan Group, “Foreign Fighters: An Updated Assessment of the Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq,” December 2015, soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/TSG_ForeignFightersUpdate_FINAL3.pdf.
33. Thomas Hegghammer, “The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad,” International Security Vol 35, No. 3 (Winter 2011/12): 53–94, www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/The_Rise_of_Muslim_Foreign_Fighters.pdf.
Chapter 2: Make the Umma Great Again
1. Alexander LaCasse, “How Many Muslim Extremists Are There? Just the Facts, Please,” The Christian Science Monitor, January 13, 2015, www.csmonitor.com/World/Security-Watch/terrorism-security/2015/0113/How-many-Muslim-extremists-are-there-Just-the-facts-please.
2. Laylá Abū Zayd, Life of the Prophet: A Biography of Prophet Mohammed (Beruit: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiya, 2011), 90.
3. Ṣafī al-Raḥmān Mubārakfūrī, Tabassum Siraj, Michael Richardson, and Badr Azimabadi. When the Moon Split: A Biography of Prophet Muhammad (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2002), 61–70; Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih II, Life of Muhammad, 7th ed., (UK: Wakalat-e-Tasnif, 2014).
4. Lesley Hazleton, The First Muslim: The Story of Muhammad (New York: Riverhead Books, 2014), 142.
5. Barnaby Rogerson, The Prophet Muhammad: A Biography (London: Abacus, 2003) 157.
6. Yasmeen Qadri, “Democracy in Islam: Myth or Reality.” Paper presented at Law-Related Education. State Bar, Austin, Texas. February 6, 2004, https://theisla.org/wp-content/uploads/resources/Qadri-Democracy_in_Islam.pdf.
7. Qasim Rashid, “Anyone Who Says the Quran Advocates Terrorism Obviously Hasn’t Read Its Lessons on Violence,” The Independent, April 10, 2017, www.independent.co.uk/voices/islam-muslim-terrorism-islamist-extremism-quran-teaching-violence-meaning-prophet-muhammed-a7676246.html.
8. Maysam J. Al Faruqi, “Umma: The Orientalists and the Quranic Concept of Identity,” Journal of Islamic Studies 16, No. 1 (2005): 2–3.
9. Gilles Kepel, Jihad The Trail of Political Islam, (New York: Belknap Press, 2002), 38.
10. Ibn Taymiya, A Muslim Theologian's Response to Christianity: A Translation of Ibn Taymiyya's Jawab al- Sahih li-man Baddala din al-Masih, trans. Thomas F. Michel (New York: Caravan Books, 1985), 56–57.
11. Kishwar Rizvi, “Destruction of Mosul Mosque Desecrates History,” CNN, June 24, 2017, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/24/opinions/destruction-mosul-mosque-opinion-rizvi/index.html.
12. John L. Esposito, Unholy War Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 45.
13. Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad (New York: Oxford UP, Incorporated, 2004), 8.
14. Malise Ruthven, A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America (London: Granta, 2002), 72–98.
15. Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (New York: Belknap Press, 2002), 314.
16. Robert Irwin, “Is This the Man Who Inspired Bin Laden?” The Guardian, UK edition, November 1, 2001.
17. Ray Takeyh and Nikolas K. Gvosdev, The Receding Shadow of the Prophet: The Rise and Fall of Radical Political Islam (New York: Praeger, 2004), 159.
18. Salim T. S. Al-Hassani, ed. 1001 Inventions. Muslim Heritage in Our World, 2nd ed. (Manchester: Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, 2006).
19. Thomas Walker Arnold, The Preaching of Islam (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1913), 2.
20. Peter Adamson, Al-Kindi (Great Medieval Thinkers) (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
21. Ehsan Yarshater, ed., “Avicenna,” Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2006. Accessed May 2009, www.iranicaonline.org/articles/avicenna-index
22. Toby E. Huff, The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 67.
23. George Saliba, Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007), Chapter 7.
24. “Self-Doomed to Failure,” The Economist, July 6, 2002: 24–26.
25. Soumitra Dutta, Bruno Lanvin, and Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, Eds., Global Innovation Index: Energizing the World with Innovation (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO, 2018).
26. Thomas L Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), 561.
27. “Saudi Arabia Tops Arab World with Registration of 664 Patents in 2017.” Al Arabiya, English edition, April 17, 2018. Accessed June 23, 2018. https://english.alarabiya.net/en/business/technology/2018/04/17/Saudi-Arabia-tops-Arab-world-with-registration-of-664-patents-in-2017.html.
28. Assaf Moghadam, The Globalization of Martyrdom Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 150.
29. UNDP, “Arab Human Development Report 2016: Youth and the Prospects for Human Development in a Changing Reality,” UNDP: United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Arab States, www.arab-hdr.org/reports/2016/english/AHDR2016En.pdf.
30. Abdel Bari Atwan, The Secret History of Al Qaeda, (New York: University of California Press, 2006), 109.
Chapter 3: Post-Colonial Hangover
1. Peter Mansfield, A History of the Middle East, 2nd ed. (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1991), Chs. 9–10.
2. Benjamin R., Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld (New York: Times Books, 1995), 11.
3. Matthew Weaver, “Isis Declares Caliphate in Iraq and Syria.” The Guardian, US edition, June 30, 2014, www.theguardian.com/world/middle-east-live/2014/jun/30/isis-declares-caliphate-in-iraq-and-syria-live-updates.
4. Beverley Milton-Edwards and Peter Hinchcliffe. Conflicts in the Middle East since 1945 (New York: Routledge, 2007), 3.
5. Ilan Pappe, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine (London: Oneworld, 2006).
6. “By Hook and by Crook: Israeli Settlement Policy in the West Bank,” B’Tselem: The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, July 2010, www.btselem.org/publications/summaries/201007_by_hook_and_by_crook.
7. Tom H Hastings, Nonviolent Response to Terrorism, (Boston: McFarland and Company, Inc., 2004), 135.
8. Sean Hannity, Deliver Us from Evil: Defeating Terrorism, Despotism, and Liberalism (New York: HarperCollins, 2004).
9. BBC, “United States of America Timeline,” BBC News, January 10, 2012,http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1230058.stm.
10. Erika G. Alin, The United States and the 1958 Lebanon Crisis: American Intervention in the Middle East (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994).
11. Steven Hiatt, A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption (Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2007), 14.
12. Jillian Schwedler. “Islamic Identity: Myth, Menace, or Mobilizer?” SAIS Review 21, 2 (2001): 10.
13. Daniel Yergen, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power (New York: Free Press, 2008).
14. CNN, “Study: Bush, Aides Made 935 False Statements in Run-up to War,” CNN Politics, January 24, 2008, http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/01/23/bush.iraq/.
15. Fouad Zakariyya, Myth and Reality in the Contemporary Islamist Movement, Trans. Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi (London: Pluto Press, 2005), ix.
16. Ray Takeyh and Nikolas K. Gvosdev. Takeyh, The Receding Shadow of the Prophet: The Rise and Fall of Radical Political Islam. (New York: Praeger, 2004), 14.
17. Abdel Bari Atwan, The Secret History of Al Qaeda (New York: University of California Press, 2008), 40.
Chapter 4: Islam Made Me Do It
1. The White House, “President Trump’s Speech to the Arab Islamic American Summit,” Statements and Releases, Foreign Policy, May 21, 2017, www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/president-trumps-speech-arab-islamic-american-summit/.
2. Thích Nhất Hạnh, Peace Is Every Step: The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life (New York: Bantam Books, 1991).
3. Hamed El-Said and Richard Barrett, Enhancing the Understanding of the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon in Syria, (UN Counter-Terrorism Centre [UNOCT], July 27, 2017), www.un.org/en/counterterrorism/assets/img/Report_Final_20170727.pdf.
4. Esther Addley, Nazia Parveen, Jamie Grierson, and Steven Morris, “Salman Abedi: From Hot-Headed Party Lover to Suicide Bomber.” The Guardian, US edition, May 26, 2017, www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/may/26/salman-abedi-manchester-arena-attack-partying-suicide-bomber.
5. Agence France-Presse, “Orly Airport Attack: Drugs and Alcohol Found in Gunman’s Blood.” The Guardian, US edition, March 19, 2017, www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/20/orly-airport-shooting-drugs-and-alcohol-found-in-gunmans-blood.
6. Kim Willsher, “Nice Attacker Grew Beard in Week Before Truck Rampage—Prosecutor.” The Guardian, US edition, July 18, 2016, www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/18/nice-attack-premeditated-mohamed-lahouaiej-bouhlel-beard-prosecutor.
7. Stephen Burgen and Ian Cobain, “Barcelona Attack: Four Suspects Face Court after Van Driver Is Shot Dead.” The Guardian, US edition, August 22, 2017, www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/21/police-searching-barcelona-van-driver-shoot-man.
8. Natalia Drozdiak and Matthew Dalton, “Two Suspects Sold Bar in Brussels Not Long Before Paris Attacks,” The Wall Street Journal, November 18, 2015, www.wsj.com/articles/two-suspects-sold-bar-in-brussels-not-long-before-paris-attacks-1447863006.
9. Mary Anne Weaver, “The Short, Violent Life of Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi,” The Atlantic, June 8, 2006, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/07/the-short-violent-life-of-abu-musab-al-zarqawi/304983/.
10. Peter Bergen, United States of Jihad: The Untold Story of Al-Qaeda in America (New York: Broadway Books, 2015), Kindle.
11. Christoph Reuter, My Life Is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).
12. Toby Harnden, “Seedy Secrets of Hijackers Who Broke Muslim Laws.” The Telegraph, 6 October 6, 2001, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1358665/Seedy-secrets-of-hijackers-who-broke-Muslim-laws.html.
13. Reuter, My Life Is a Weapon.
14. Malise Ruthven, A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America (London: Granta, 2002), 122.
15. Davide Lerner, “It’s Not Islam That Drives Young Europeans to Jihad, France’s Top Terrorism Expert Explains.” Haaretz.com, August 20, 2017, www.haaretz.com/world-news/europe/it-s-not-islam-that-drives-young-europeans-to-jihad-terrorism-expert-says-1.5477000.
16. Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt, “In the Age of ISIS, Who’s a Terrorist, and Who’s Simply Deranged?” The New York Times, July 17, 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/07/18/world/europe/in-the-age-of-isis-whos-a-terrorist-and-whos-simply-deranged.html?_r=0.
17. Associated Press in Detroit, “Flint Airport Stabbing Suspect Was Not on Radar of Canada or US Authorities,” The Guardian, US edition, June 23, 2017, www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/23/flint-airport-stabbing-suspect-amor-ftouhi-lone-wolf.
18. Vikram Dodd and Matthew Taylor, “London Attack: ‘Aggressive’ and ‘Strange’ Suspect Vowed to ‘Do Some Damage,’” The Guardian, US edition, June 20, 2017, www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/jun/19/several-casualties-reported-after-van-hits-pedestrians-in-north-london.
19. Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate (London: Saqi Books, 2015), 20–21.
20. Global Terrorism Index 2017, Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017, visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
21. Sami Aboudi, Omar Fahmy, and Kevin Liffey (ed.), “Bomber Planning to Attack Mecca’s Grand Mosque Blows Himself Up: Ministry,” Reuters, World News, June 23, 2017, www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-security-idUSKBN19E2BL.
22. Justin Whitaker, “Dalai Lama: There Is No ‘Muslim Terrorist’ or ‘Buddhist Terrorist,’” UHRP: Uyghur Human Rights Project, 18 September, 18, 2016, uhrp.org/news/dalai-lama-there-no-%E2%80%9Cmuslim-terrorist%E2%80%9D-or-%E2%80%9Cbuddhist-terrorist%E2%80%9D.
23. The White House, “Trump’s Speech to Arab Islamic American Summit.”
24. Khalid Aziz, “Country Paper on Drivers of Radicalism and Extremism in Pakistan,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, December 2015, library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/pakistan/12144.pdf.
25. Alan Travis, “MI5 Report Challenges Views on Terrorism in Britain,” The Guardian, US edition, August 20, 2008, www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/aug/20/uksecurity.terrorism1.
26. Lisette Thooft, “Karen Armstrong: ‘There Is Nothing in the Islam That Is More Violent than Christianity,’” NieuwWij. January 18, 2015, www.nieuwwij.nl/english/karen-armstrong-nothing-islam-violent-christianity/.
27. Robyn Scott and Lisa Witter. “Can Nigeria Teach Us How to Build Defences against Terrorism?” World Economic Forum, Global Agenda, January 18, 2016, www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/can-nigeria-teach-us-how-to-build-resilience-against-terrorism/.
28. Arie Perliger and Daniel Milton, “From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria,” Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, November 11, 2016, https://ctc.usma.edu/from-cradle-to-grave-the-lifecycle-of-foreign-fighters-in-iraq-and-syria/.
29. Souad Mekhennet, “What Are the Root Causes of Islamic Terrorism?” Global Agenda. World Economic Forum, January 18, 2016, Accessed in 2017. www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/what-are-the-root-causes-of-islamic-terrorism/.[RR4]
Chapter 5: Poverty of Hope
1. David Gold, “Economics of Terrorism.” CIAO: Columbia International Affairs Online. New School University. May 8, 2009, www.files.ethz.ch/isn/10698/doc_10729_290_en.pdf.
2. Abu Bakr Naji, The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Phase the Umma Will Experience, (2004), 111, https://www.cia.gov/library/abbottabad-compound/20/207DE0C1094BC68A7061C96629DD5C1A_adara_twahsh.pdf.
3. Dan Ackman, “The Cost of Being Osama Bin Laden,” Forbes, September 14, 2001, www.forbes.com/2001/09/14/0914ladenmoney.html#14d363f132a3.
4. Mabruk Kabir, “Empowering a New Generation of Female Entrepreneurs in Afghanistan,” The World Bank, End Poverty in South Asia, March 15, 2017, blogs.worldbank.org/endpovertyinsouthasia/empowering-new-generation-female-entrepreneurs-afghanistan.
5. Zuri Linetsky, “Jobs, Not Bombs, Will Win the War on Terror,” Foreign Policy, March 14, 2017, foreignpolicy.com/2017/03/13/this-poll-proves-that-trumps-counterterrorism-strategy-will-fail-africa-nigeria-boko-haram/.
6. Hamed El-Said and Richard Barrett, Enhancing the Understanding of the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon in Syria, (UN Counter-Terrorism Centre [UNOC]), July 27, 2017), www.un.org/en/counterterrorism/assets/img/Report_Final_20170727.pdf.
9. Arie Perliger and Daniel Milton. “From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria.” Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, November 11, 2016, ctc.usma.edu/from-cradle-to-grave-the-lifecycle-of-foreign-fighters-in-iraq-and-syria/.
10. Neven Bondokji, Kim Wilkinson, and Leen Aghabi, “Trapped Between Destructive Choices: Radicalisation Drivers Affecting Youth in Jordan,” WANA Institute, February 21, 2017, wanainstitute.org/en/publication/trapped-between-destructive-choices-radicalisation-drivers-affecting-youth-jordan.
11. Peter Byrne, “Anatomy of Terror: What Makes Normal People Become Extremists?” New Scientist, August 16, 2017, www.newscientist.com/article/mg23531390-700-anatomy-of-terror-what-makes-normal-people-become-extremists/.
12. Forbes International Contributor, “The World’s 10 Richest Terrorist Organizations,” Forbes, 12 December 12, 2014, www.forbes.com/sites/forbesinternational/2014/12/12/the-worlds-10-richest-terrorist-organizations/.
13. Jessica Stern, Terror in the Name of God Why Religious Militants Kill (New York: Ecco, 2003), 212–17.
14. Shanta Devarajanet al., Economic and Social Inclusion to Prevent Violent Extremism (Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, Economic Monitor, October 2016).
15. Ismat Sarah Mangla, “Why Do American Muslims Fare Better Than Their French Counterparts?” International Business Times, November 18, 2015, www.ibtimes.com/why-do-american-muslims-fare-better-their-french-counterparts-2189449.
16. Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Extremism: Root Causes, Drivers, and Responses,” November 20, 2015, http://africacenter.org/spotlight/extremism-root-causes-drivers-and-responses/.
17. Global Terrorism Index 2017. Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017 visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
18. “White Right: Meeting the Enemy.” Exposure, Season 7, Episode 2, directed by Deeyah Khan, written by Gareth McLean, featuring Deeyah Khan, Brian Culpepper, and Pardeep Kaleka, aired December 11, 2017, viewed on Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/search?q=white%20right&jbv=80994804&jbp=0&jbr=0.
Chapter 6: Dis-integrated
Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thought on the Nature of Mass Movements (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), 44.
Philip Rucker and Julie Tate, “In Online Posts Apparently by Detroit Sus- pect, Religious Ideals Collide,” The Washington Post, December 29, 2009, www. washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/28/AR2009122802492.html.
Colonel John M. “Matt” Venhaus, US Army, Why Youth Join al-Qaeda, United States Institute of Peace (USIP), 2010, www usip org/sites/default/files /SR236Venhaus pdf.
“Jihad Cool,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, April 4, 2018, https://en wikipedia org/wiki/Jihad_Cool.
Abdel Bari Atwan, Islamic State:The Digital Caliphate (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2015), 20.
“The Real Housewives of ISIS,” Revolting, BBC, January 5, 2017, www youtube. com/watch?v=fKL9b5-DL4A.
Marc Sageman, Turning to Political Violence: The Emergence of Terrorism (Phila- delphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017).
Mitchell D. Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Radicalization in the West:The Homegrown Threat (New York: City of New York Police Department, 2007).
Peter Bergen, United States of Jihad: The Untold Story of Al-Qaeda in America (NewYork:Crown,2016).
Homegrown:The Counter-Terror Dilemma, directed by Greg Barker, HBO Docu-mentary Films, aired on February 8, 2016, www.imdb.com/title/tt5497132/.
Johannes Hirn, Will Box for Passport, photo essay of Tamerlan Tsarnaev, 2009. See www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/19/tamerlan-tsarnaev-boxing-photos_n _3118629 html.
Josie Jammet,“The Fall of the House of Tsarnaev,” Boston Globe, December 15, 2013, www.bostonglobe.com/Page/Boston/2011-2020/WebGraphics/Metro/BostonGlobe.com/2013/12/15tsarnaev/tsarnaev.html.
Neven Bondokji, Kim Wilkinson, and Leen Aghabi, “Trapped Between Destructive Choices: Radicalisation Drivers Affecting Youth in Jordan,” WANA Institute, February 21, 2017, wanainstitute.org/en/publication/trapped-between-destructive-choices-radicalisation-drivers-affecting-youth-jordan.
Manal Omar,“Why Women Are a Not-So-Secret Weapon for ISIS,” CNN, 31 March 31, 2017, edition cnn com/2017/03/31/opinions/female-fighters-isis -behind-the-mask-omar-opinion/index html.
United States Senate, “Zachary Chesser: A Case Study in Online Islamist Radicalization and Its Meaning for the Threat of Homegrown Terrorism” (PDF), Majority and Minority Staff Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, February 2012, www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/CHESSER%20FINAL%20REPORT(1)2.pdf.
Emma Green, “How Two Mississippi College Students Fell in Love and Decided to Join a Terrorist Group,” The Atlantic, May 1, 2017, www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/05/mississippi-young-dakhlalla/524751/
Glennon Doyle Melton,“One Teacher’s Brilliant Idea to Stop School Shootings Has Nothing to Do with Guns,” Business Insider, February 17, 2018, www.businessinsider.com/one-teachers-brilliant-idea-to-stop-future-school-shootings-has-nothing-to-do-with-guns-2018-2
Global Terrorism Index 2016 (Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2016) http://economicsandpeaceorg/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf.
Arie Perliger and Daniel Milton,“From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria,” Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, November 11, 2016, https://ctc usma.edu/from-cradle-to-grave-the-lifecycle-of-foreign-fighters-in-iraq-and-syria/
Sarah Lyons-Padilla,“Can Discrimination Contribute to Feelings of Radicalization?” American Psychological Association, August 5, 2017, https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2017/08/discrimination-radicalization.aspx.
Sarah Lyons-Padilla, “I’ve Studied Radicalization—And Islamophobia Often Plants the Seed,” The Guardian, US edition, June 13, 2016, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/13/radicalisation-islamophobia-orlando-shooting-florida-muslims-trump.
Alex Nowrasteh, “Immigration and Crime—What the Research Says,” Cato Institute, July 14, 2015, www.cato.org/blog/immigration-crime-what -research-says.
“U.S. Muslims Concerned about Their Place in Society, But Continue to Believe in the American Dream: 1. Demographic Portrait of Muslim Americans,” Pew Research Center: Religion and Public Life, July 26, 2017, www.pewforum.org/2017/07/26/demographic-portrait-of-muslim-americans/#fn-28360-8.
“Islamic, Yet Integrated: Why Muslims Fare Better in America Than in Europe,” The Economist, September 6, 2014, www.economist.com/united-states/2014/09/06/islamic-yet-integrated.
“Muslims Widely Seen as Facing Discrimination,” Pew Research Center: Religion and Public Life, September 9, 2009, www.pewforum.org/2009/09/09/muslims-widely-seen-as-facing-discrimination3-2/.
Youssef Chouhoud and Dalia Mogahed, “American Muslim Poll 2018: Full Report,” ISPU, April 30, 2018, www.ispu.org/american-muslim-poll-2018-full-report/
Josh Hammer,“Analysis: Homegrown Terrorism in the U.S. and UK,” Foreign Policy Association, September 11, 2008, Accessed in 2008, www.fpa.org/topics_info2414/topics_info_show htm?doc_id=705094.
Krishnadev Calamur,“Are Immigrants Prone to Crime and Terrorism?” The Atlantic, June 15, 2016, www.theatlantic.com/news/archive/2016/06/immigrants-and-crime/486884/.
Patrick Simon, “France and the Unknown Second Generation: Preliminary Results on Social Mobility,” International Migration Review 37, 4 (March 2006): 1091–1119.
Cris Beauchemin et al., Trajectoires Et Origines Enquête Sur La Diversité Des Pop- ulations En France, French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED), 2016, www ined fr/en/publications/grandes-enquetes/trajectoires-et-origines/#tabs-3.
Souad Mekhennet, Excerpt from I Was Told to Come Alone: My Journey Behind the Lines of Jihad (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2017), accessed on http://americanempireproject.com/recommended-reading/i-was-told-to-come-alone/excerpt/.
Global Terrorism Index 2017 (Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017), visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
“Four of the Five Terrorists in Europe Have North African Roots,” The International Massmedia Agency, June 29, 2017, intmassmedia.com/2017/06/29/four-of-the-five-terrorists-in-europe-have-north-african-roots/.
Stephan Vopel and Yasemin El-Menouar, “Special Study of Islam, 2015: An Overview of the Most Important Findings,” Bertelsmann Stiftung Religion Monitor, 2015, www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/Projekte/51_Religionsmonitor/Religionmonitor_Specialstudy_Islam_2014 _Overview_20150108.pdf.
Zak Ebrahim, The Terrorist’s Son: A Story of Choice (New York: TED Books, 2014). See also www.ted.com/talks/zak_ebrahim_i_am_the_son_of_a_terrorist_here_s_how_i_chose_peace?language=en.
Hamed El-Said and Richard Barrett. Enhancing the Understanding of the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon in Syria, United Nations Office of Counter-Terror- ism,2017,www un org/en/counterterrorism/assets/img/Report_Final_20170727 pdf.
Chapter 7: Mirror, Mirror
Barbara Ehrenreich, Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War (New York: Henry and Holt, 1997).
“Who Is Osama Bin Laden?” BBC News, December 6, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1551100.stm.
Abdel Bari Atwan, The Secret History of Al Qaeda (New York: University of California Press, 2008), 57.
Peter Bergen, The Osama Bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader (New York: Free Press, 2006), 119.
Graham Vyse,“‘Compassionate Conservatism’ Won’t Be Back Anytime Soon,” The New Republic, March 30, 2018, https://newrepublic.com/article/147694/compassionate-conservatism-wont-back-anytime-soon.
Abu Bakr Naji, The Management of Savagery:The Most Critical Phase the Umma Will Experience (2004), 31, https://www.cia.gov/library/abbottabad-compound/20/207DE0C1094BC68A7061C96629DD5C1A_adara_twahsh.pdf.
Gilles Kepel, Al Qaeda in Its Own Words, ed. Jean-Pierre Milelli, trans. Pascale Ghazaleh (New York: Belknap Press, 2008), 72.
Ora Coren and Nadan Feldman,“U.S.Aid to Israel Totals $233.7b Over Six Decades,” Haaretz, March 20, 2013, www haaretz com/israel-news/business/u-s -aid-to-israel-totals-233-7b-over-six-decades premium-1 510592.
Haroon Janjua,“‘Unspeakable Numbers’: 10,000 Civilians Killed or Injured in Afghanistan in 2017,” The Guardian, US edition, February 16, 2018, www theguardian com/global-development/2018/feb/16/10000-civilians-killed -injured-afghanistan-2017-united-nations.
Dan Vergano,“Half-Million Iraqis Died in the War, New Study Says,” National Geographic, October 16, 2013, news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/10/131015-iraq-war-deaths-survey-2013/.
Kathryn Watson, “Fight against ISIS Has Shifted to ‘Annihilation Tactics,’ Mattis Says,” CBS News, May 28, 2017, www.cbsnews.com/news/fight-against-isis-has-shifted-to-annihilation-tactics-mattis-says/.
“Rising from the Rubble: Iraq’s Mosul Takes Steps to Deal with War Debris,” UN Environment, United Nations Environment Programme, March 26, 2018, www. unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/rising-rubble-iraqs-mosul-takes-steps-deal-war-debris.
Ben Brimelow,“A New Terrorist Group Is Popping Up in Syria and Capitalizing on ISIS’ Defeat,” Business Insider UK,April 19,2018,http://uk.businessinsider.com/syria-terrorist-group-hayat-tahrir-al-sham-2018-4?r=US&IR=T.
Samuel Oakford, “Counting the Dead in Mosul,” The Atlantic, April 5, 2018, www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/04/counting-the-dead-in-mosul/556466/.
Molly Hennessy-Fiske and Alexandra Zavis, “Civilian Victims of U.S. Coalition Airstrike in Iraq Dig Up Graves in Desperate Bid for Compensation,” Los Angeles Times, December 18, 2017, www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-iraq-airstrike-compensation-20171218-story.html.
Emile Bruneau,“Understanding the Terrorist Mind,” Cerebrum, (2016), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198759/.
Sean Hannity, Deliver Us from Evil: Defeating Terrorism, Despotism, and Liberalism (New York: William Morrow, 2004).
Madeline Batt et al., Extraordinary Rendition and Torture Victim Narratives, UNC School of Law, December 2017, www.law.unc.edu/documents/academics/humanrights/extraordinaryrenditionandNC pdf.
Souad Mekhennet, “I Was Told to Come Alone,” The Huffington Post, June 14, 2017, www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/i-was-told-to-come-alone_us_59404ab0e4b04c03fa261631.
Shannon E. French, “The Warrior’s Code. International Society for Military Ethics,” International Society for Military Ethics, 2001, http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE02/French02.html.
K. P. Mohanan, “Preventing Violent Extremism through Education,” The Blue Dot: Exploring New Ideas for a Shared Future, Issue 4 (2016): 12, www.gcedclearinghouse.org/sites/default/files/resources/180094eng.pdf.
United Nations, Security Council, “Resolution 1377 (2001): Adopted by the Security Council at Its 4413th Meeting, on 12 November 2001,” United Nations, November 12, 2001, https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal nsf/0/B9410BA1CB3A802085256E7D00547807.
Albert Bandura, “Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency,” Journal of Moral Education 31, 2 (2002): 102–119, http://web.stanford.edu/~kcarmel/CC_BehavChange_Course/readings/Additional%20Resources/Bandura/bandura_moraldisengagement pdf.
“8. Conclusion: A Kafkaesque Element,” Stanford Prison Experiment, 1999, www.prisonexp.org/conclusion.
“A Class Divided,” Frontline, Season 3, Episode 9, produced by William Peters, aired on March 26, 1985 on PBS, www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/.
Nitin Nohria,“Practicing Moral Humility,”TEDxNewEngland, November 1, 2011, www.youtube com/watch?v=NCHnK5ZK9iI.
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (New York: Harper and Row, 1974).
Peter Byrne, “Anatomy of Terror: What Makes Normal People Become Extremists?” New Scientist 3139, August 16, 2017, www.newscientist.com/article/mg23531390-700-anatomy-of-terror-what-makes-normal-people-become -extremists/.
Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, Change of Heart: The Bodhisattva Peace Train- ing of Chagdud Tulku, ed. Lama Shenpen Drolma (Junction City, CA: Padma Publishing, 2003).
Chapter 8: Counterproductive
Global Terrorism Index 2017 (Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2017), 77, visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf.
Seth G. Jones and Artin C. Libicki, How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Coun- tering Al Qa’Ida (RAND Corporation, 2008), www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/ pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG741-1.pdf.
Global Terrorism Index 2016 (Institute for Economics and Peace, November 2016), 2, http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global -Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf.
Paul Steyn, “This Will Shatter Your View of Apex Predators: How Wolves Change Rivers—National Geographic Blog,”National Geographic, February 16, 2014, blog nationalgeographic.org/2014/02/16/this-will-shatter-your-view-of-apex-predators-how-wolves-change-rivers/.
Peter Byrne,“Anatomy of Terror: What Makes Normal People Become Extremists?” New Scientist, August 16, 2017, www.newscientist.com/article/mg23531390-700-anatomy-of-terror-what-makes-normal-people-become-extremists/.
Emile Bruneau,“Understanding the Terrorist Mind,” Cerebrum, US National Library of Medicine, November 1, 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198759/.
Abu Rumman, Mohammad Suliman et al., Methods of Preventing and Combatting Terrorism in the MENA Region and the West, trans. by Banan Fathi Malkawi (Amman: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2016), 39–49, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/amman/13089.pdf.
Department of Defense, Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication, Defense Science Board (DSB), 2004, fas.org/irp/agency/ dod/dsb/commun.pdf.
Zuri Linetsky, “Jobs, Not Bombs, Will Win the War on Terror,” Foreign Policy, March 14, 2017, foreignpolicy.com/2017/03/13/this-poll-proves-that-trumps-counterterrorism-strategy-will-fail-africa-nigeria-boko-haram/.
UNDP, Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives, and the Tipping Point for Recruitment (United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Africa, 2017), journey-to-extremism.undp.org/content/downloads/UNDP-JourneyToExtremism-report-2017-english.pdf.
Jideofor Adibe,“Explaining the Emergence of Boko Haram,” Brookings, May 6, 2014, www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2014/05/06/explaining-the-emergence-of-boko-haram/.
Rachelle Hampton,“How People Become Terrorists,” New America, March 2, 2017, www.newamerica.org/weekly/edition-155/how-people-become-terrorists/.
K. P. Mohanan, “Preventing Violent Extremism through Education,” The Blue Dot: Exploring New Ideas for a Shared Future, Issue 4 (2016): 5, www.gcedclearinghouse. org/sites/default/files/resources/180094eng.pdf.
David Gold, “Economics of Terrorism,” CIAO: Columbia International Affairs Online. New School University, May 8, 2009, www.files.ethz.ch/isn/10698/doc_10729_290_en.pdf.
“Top 10 Findings: What do 200 Million Arab Youth Have to Say about Their Future?” ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller Arab Youth Survey Middle East, 2018, www.arabyouthsurvey.com/findings.html.
Iain Boal, T.J. Clark, Joseph Matthews, and Michael Watts, Afflicted Powers Capital and Spectacle in a New Age of War (New York: Verso, 2005), 154.
Samia Nakhoul,“Saddam’s Former Army Is Secret of Baghdadi’s Success,” Reuters, June 16, 2015, www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-baghdadi-insight-idUSKBN0OW1VN20150616.
“From Hypocrisy to Apostasy: The Extinction of the Grayzone,” Dabiq, Bayt Al Masadir, January 2015, https://clarionproject.org/docs/islamic-state-dabiq-magazine-issue-7-from-hypocrisy-to-apostasy pdf.
William McCants and Christopher Meserole, “Radicalization, Laïcité, and the Islamic Veil,” Religional, April 26, 2016, religional.org/2016/04/25/french-connection-part-ii-radicalization-laicite-and-the-islamic-veil/.
CJ Werleman, “#LoveAMuslimDay: A Textbook Example of How to Defeat Terrorism,” Middle East Eye, April 13, 2018, www.middleeasteye.net/columns/loveamuslimday-textbook-example-how-defeat-terrorism-414721064.
Sabeeha Rehman, “Not a Mosque, and Not at Ground Zero,” Salon, September 23,2017,www.salon.com/2017/09/23/not-a-mosque-and-not-at-ground-zero/.
Chapter 9: Spiritual Counterterrorism
Steven Swinford,“It Is Lazy to Say Paris Terror Attacks Have Nothing to Do with Islam, Sajid Javid Says,” The Telegraph, January 11, 2015, www telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/11338258/It-is-lazy-to-say-Paris-terror-attacks-have-nothing-to-do-with-Islam-Sajid-Javid-says.html.
Steven Swinford, “David Cameron: Muslims Must Do More to Tackle Terrorism in Wake of Paris Shootings,” The Telegraph, January 12, 2015, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/11340004/David-Cameron-Muslims-must-do-more-to-tackle-terrorism-in-wake-of-Paris-shootings.html.
UNDP, Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives, and the Tipping Point for Recruitment (United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Africa, 2017), journey-to-extremism.undp.org/content/downloads/UNDP-JourneyToExtremism-report-2017-english.pdf.
Audu Bulama Bukarti,“Islam Is Both a Sword and a Shield to Violent Extremism,” Institute for Global Change, September 13, 2017, institute.global/insight/co-existence/islam-both-sword-and-shield-violent-extremism.
Melinda Holmes,“Preventing Violent Extremism through Peacebuilding: Current Perspectives from the Field.” ICAN: International Civil Society Action Network, August, 11 2017, www.icanpeacework.org/2017/08/09/preventing-violent-extremism-peacebuilding-current-perspectives-field/.
Dr. Fatima Akilu, in discussion with the author via Skype, June 5, 2008.
“Peace Heroes: How Nigerian Psychologist Fatima Akilu Rehabilitates Extremist Societies,”ICAN, June 7, 2018, www.icanpeacework.org/2018/06/07/peace-heroes-nigerian-psychologist-fatima-akilu-rehabilitates-extremist-societies/.
Camille Schyns and Andreas Müllerleile, “How to Prevent Violent Extremism and Radicalisation?” European Institute of Peace, accessed on September 29, 2018, www.eip.org/en/news-events/how-prevent-violent-extremism-and-radicalisation.
Dominic Casciani, “Analysis: The Prevent Strategy and Its Problems - BBC News,” BBC, August 26, 2014, www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28939555.
Global Terrorism Index 2017 (Institute for Economics and Peace, 2017), visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf and Global Terrorism Index 2016 (Institute for Economics and Peace, 2016), http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf.
Coleman Barks, Rumi: Bridge to the Soul: Journeys into the Music and Silence of the Heart (New York: HarperOne, 2007), 1.
Sarah Feuer, State Islam in the Battle against Extremism: Emerging Trends in Morocco and Tunisia (Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 145, June 2016), www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus145_Feuer-4.pdf.
Assia Bensalah Alaoui, “Morocco’s Security Strategy: Preventing Terrorism and Countering Extremism,” European View 16, 1 (June 2017): 103–120, https://link springer.com/article/10.1007/s12290-017-0449-3.
Abu Bakr Naji, The Management of Savagery:The Most Critical Phase the Umma Will Experience (2004), https://www.cia.gov/library/abbottabad-compound/20/ 207DE0C1094BC68A7061C96629DD5C1A_adara_twahsh.pdf.
“Basit Jamal.” Ashoka, September 29, 2018, www.ashoka.org/en/fellow/basit-jamal.
Basit Jamal, in discussion with author via Skype, June 9, 2018.
“What you cultivate during the next seven years, when the time of harvest comes, leave the grains in their spikes, except for what you eat.” (Quran, 12:47– 49), Ijaz Chaudry, The Quran: The Latest and Most Modern Translation of the Quran (Lu